You do not require a doctor's sickness certificate for any illness lasting seven days or less. The Doctor will not issue a certificate for periods less than seven days.
Your employer may however require you to complete a self-certification form (SC2) which is available from your employer or on the HMRC website.
A printable version is available here
Evidence that you are sick
If you are sick for more than seven days, your employer can ask you to give them some form of medical evidence to support payment of SSP (statutory sick pay).
Your employer can ask you to confirm that you've been ill.You can do this by filling in a form yourself when you return to work. This is called self-certification.
If you're sick and off work for more than seven days, your employer will probably ask for proof of your illness. Most employers ask for a fit note from your GP.
However, this will also depend on your employer's company policy on sick leave (or sickness absence). This policy should tell you how many days you can be off sick before you need to provide proof of illness or a fit note.
You could also provide evidence from someone who is not a medical practitioner, e.g. a dentist. Your employer will decide whether or not this evidence is acceptable. If your employer has any doubts, they may still ask for a medical certificate from your GP.
Statement of Fitness for Work - ’Fit Note'
The 'fit note' was introduced on 6 April 2010. With your employer's support, the note will help you return to work sooner by providing more information about the effects of your illness or injury.
For more information see the DirectGov website (where this information was sourced)
ONLINE ISOLATION NOTES - PROVIDING PROOF OF CORONAVIRUS ABSENCE FROM WORK
Online isolation notes are via NHS111 online, for patients that are self-isolating. An isolation note can be obtained without contacting a doctor and practices are not able to provide these; The notes can be accessed through the NHS website and NHS 111 online
Do you need a letter regarding Coronavirus to give to your employer about providing sicknotes?
letter to patients requesting a sicknote for Coronavirus
Requests for certification of absence from the workplace may fall into five categories:
Personally affected so isolating for seven day
Personally affected and remaining unwell for over seven day
Household contact affected so isolating for fourteen days as per government advice
At risk group so following government advice
Those in full time education
5 circumstances you may need a sicknote and how to get one